Industries Served Menu

Aerospace

Image Not Found.

Aluminum 

GradesTempersFinishSpecifications
2014 0
T6
0
0
0
 
T651
T6
T3
 
 
 
 
T6
T6
Bare
 
 
Clad
Clad 1 Side
AMS-4028
AMS-4029
DMS-1580
AMS-QQ-A-250/3
DMS-2074
2024 0
0
T3
T3
T851
T4
T4
0
 
T4
 
0
0, T3
 
T3
 
T351
T351
 
 
T3
 
T3
 
T3
 
T4, T42
 
T81
 
 
T81
 
 
T81
 
T351
 
T351
 
T62
T72,T81
Bare
 
 
 
 
 
Clad
 
 
 
 
Clad 1 Side
 
 
AMS-QQ-A-250/4
AMS-4035, BAMS 516-010
AMS-4037, FMS-1010
5PTM7G22
 
CMMP-020
AMS-QQ-A-250/5
AMS-4040, BMS-7-305
AMS-4041
CMMP-020
AMS-4036
AMS-4077
MMS-1412 (All Tempers)
MEP 02-015
2124 T351
 
T851
 
T8151
 
Bare
 
AMS-QQ-A-250/29, AMS-4101, FMS-3002
FMS-3008, 5PTM7G08, GM-2007, MMS-1432
2219 0
T81
T851
0
 
T31
T87
 
T31
 
T37
T351
 
T81
 
Bare
 
 
Clad
 
AMS-QQ-A-250/30, AMS-4031
 
 
AMS-4094,AMS-4095,AMS-4096,DMS-1719
BMS-7-110
6013  
 
 
T4
 
T4
 
T6
T6
Bare
 
 
AMS-4347
AMS-4216
FMS-3061
6061 0
0
T4
T6
0
T4
 
T451
T651
 
T6
 
 
 
 
Bare
 
 
 
Clad
AMS-QQ-A-250/11, ASTM-B209
AMS-4025
AMS-4026
AMS-4027
AMS-4021
7050 T7451
 
 
 
T7651
 
 
 
 
 
 
T7451
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bare
 
 
 
 
 
AMS-4050, BMS7-323 Type I, III, BAMS-516-003
MMS-1439, MMS-1420, 5PTM7B02 5PTM7T08
BAMS-516-001, CMMP-010, LMA-M7050
DMS-2233, DMS-2459
AMS-4201, BAMS-516-001
MEP 02-014
7075 0
0
T6
T7351
T7651
0
T6
T73
T6
 
T651
 
T6
 
T651
 
T73
 
T76
 
 
 
 
 
Bare
 
 
 
Clad
 
 
 
AMS-QQ-A-250/12
AMS-4044, BAMS 516-011
AMS-QQ-A-250/24, AMS-4045
AMS-4078
AMS-QQ-A250/13, AMS-QQ-A-250/25
AMS-4048
AMS-4049
MMS-159
7475 T6
T761
T7651
T651
T7351
0
T7651
T761
 
 
 
 
 
 
T61
T7351
T61
 
 
 
 
 
 
T761
 
 
 
Bare
 
 
 
 
 
 
Clad
 
AMS-4084
AMS-4085
AMS-4089
AMS-4090
AMS-4202, BAMS-516-002
DMS-2234, DMS-2281, 5PTM7T13
FMS-3004
AMS-4100
AMS-4207

Stainless Steel 300 Series

GradeTemperSheetPlateMaterial Specifications
301 A
1/4 HD
1/2 HD
3/4 HD
FH
    ASTM A240, ASTM A666, AMS 5901
ASTM A240, ASTM A666, AMS 5517
ASTM A240, ASTM A666, AMS 5518
ASTM A240, ASTM A666, AMS 5902
ASTM A240, ASTM A666, AMS 5519
302 A     ASTM A240, ASTM A666, AMS 5515
304 A     ASTM A240, ASTM A666, AMS 5513
304L A     ASTM A240, ASTM A666, AMS 5511

321

A     ASTM A240, ASTM A666, AMS 5510
347 A     AMS 5512

 

Stainless Steel PH Series

GradeTemperSheetPlateMaterial Specifications
15-5 A     AMS 5862, BMS7-240
15-7 A     AMS 5520
17-7 A
C
   

AMS 5528

AMS 5529

AEROSPACE & EXOTIC ALLOYS

Mill distributors of High Temp, Corrosion Resistant, Low Expansion, & Refractory Metals.


Titanium Alloys: 

Titanium Medical Specifications
ASTM F-67 Unalloyed titanium for implant applications
ASTM F-136 6AL4V Eli for surgical implant applications
ASTM F-1341 CP Wire for implants
ASTM F-1472 6AL4V for surgical implant applications

 

Aerospace Specifications
MIL-T 9046 Sheet/Strip/Plate 6AL4V
AMS-T-9046 Sheet/Strip/Plate 6AL4V
MIL-T 9047 Bars/Wire/Forgings/Rings 6AL4V
AMS-T-9047 Bars/Wire/Forgings/Rings 6AL4V
AMS 6931 Bars/Wire/Forgings/Rings 6AL4V
AMS 4900 Sheet/Strip/Plate Commercially Pure 55 KSI YS
AMS 4901 Sheet/Strip/Plate Commercially Pure 70 KSI YS
AMS 4902 Sheet/Strip/Plate Commercially Pure 40 KSI YS
AMS 4907 Sheet/Strip/Plate 6AL4V Eli
AMS 4910 Sheet/Strip/Plate 5AL2.5SN
AMS 4921 Sheet/Strip/Plate Commercially Pure 70KSI YS
AMS 4928 Bas/Wire/Forgings/Rings/Drawn Shapes 6AL4V
AMS 4930 Bars/Wire/Forgings/Rings 6AL4V Eli
AMS 4965 Bars/Wire/Forgings/Rings 6AL4V STA
AMS 4967 Bars/Wire/Forgings/Rings 6AL4V Annealed-Heat Treatable

 

Industrial Specifications
ASTM B 265 GR 1 Sheet/Strip/Plate Commpercially Pure 25 KSI min YS
AMS-T-9046 Sheet/Strip/Plate 6AL4V
ASTM B 265 GR 2 Sheet/Strip/Plate Commpercially Pure 40 KSI min YS
ASTM B 265 GR 3 Sheet/Strip/Plate Commpercially Pure 55 KSI min YS
ASTM B 265 GR 4 Sheet/Strip/Plate Commpercially Pure 70 KSI min YS
ASTM B 265 GR 5 Sheet/Strip/Plate 6AL4V
ASTM B 265 GR 23 Sheet/Strip/Plate 6AL4V Eli
ASTM B 861 Seamless Pipe
ASTM B 862 Welded Pipe
ASTM B 338 Grade 2 Seamless and Welding Tubing Commercially Pure 40 KSI min YS
ASTM B 348 GR 1 Bars and Billets Commercially Pure 25 KSI min YS
ASTM B 348 GR 2 Bars and Billets Commercially Pure 40 KSI min YS
ASTM B 348 GR 3 Bars and Billets Commercially Pure 50 KSI min YS
ASTM B 348 GR 4 Bars and Billets Commercially Pure 70 KSI min YS
ASTM B 348 GR 5 Bars and Billets 6AL4V
ASTM B 363 Fittings
ASTM B 367 Castings
ASTM B381 Forgings
ASME SB 265 Sheet/Strip/Plate Commercially Pure and Alloyed
ASME SB 861 Seamless Pipe
ASME SB 862 Welded Pipe
ASME SB 348 Bars and Billets Commercially Pure and Alloyed


Nickel, Cobalt, Molybdenum, & Stainless Alloys

 

High Temperature Alloys

 

High temperature resistance is essential in many applications. Gas turbines, fuel nozzles, heat treating fixtures, and furnace muffles. These materials must stand up to high heat, extreme oxidation potential and cycling.

 

HASTELLOY® alloy X (HX) (UNS N06002) Ni 47.5, Cr 21.8, Fe 18.5, Mo 9.0 Excellent high temperature strength and oxidation resistance to 2200°F. Excellent forming and welding characteristics. Resistance to oxidizing, reducing, and neutral atmospheres. Resistant to SCC in petrochemical applications. Good ductility after prolonged service temperatures of 1200, through 1600°F for 16,000 hours.
Gas turbine combustion cans and ducting, heat-treating equipment, spray bars, flame holders, furnace rolls, furnace baffles, and flash drier components. -> See our HX Items <-

 

INCONEL® alloy 625 (UNS N06625) Ni 61.0, Cr 21.5 Mo 9.0, Nb+Ta 3.6 High strength and toughness from cryogenic temperatures to 1800 degrees F (980 degrees C), good oxidation resistance, exceptional fatigue strength, and good corrosion resistance.
Chemical and pollution control equipment, ash pit seals, nuclear reactors, marine equipment, ducting, thrust reverser assemblies, fuel nozzles, afterburners, spray bars. -> See our 625 Items <-

 

INCONEL® alloy 718 (UNS N07718) Ni 52.5, Cr 19.0 Fe 18.5 Mo 3.0 Nb+Ta 3.6 Excellent strength from -423 degrees F to 1300 degrees F (-253 degrees C to 705 degrees C). Age hardenable and may be welded in fully aged condition, Excellent oxidation resistance up to 1800 degrees F (980 degrees C).
Jet engines, pump bodies and parts, rocket motors and thrust reversers, nuclear fuel element spacers, hot extrusion tooling. -> See our 718 Items <-

 

INCONEL® alloy 600 (UNS N06600) Ni 76.0, Cr 15.5, Fe 8.0 High nickel, high chromium content for resistance to oxidizing and reducing environments; for severely corrosive environments at elevated temperatures. Good oxidation resistance to 2150°F. Good formability.
Furnace muffles, electronic components, chemical and food processing equipment, heat treating equipment, nuclear steam generator tubing.

 

INCONEL® alloy 601 (UNS N06601) Ni 61 Cr 23 C 0.10 Mn 1.0 Al 1.4 Fe Bal S 0.015 Si 0.5 . Nickel, higher chromium content for better resistance to oxidizing and reducing environments; for severely corrosive environments at elevated temperatures. Good oxidation resistance to 2200°F. Good formability.
Instrument probes, furnace muffles, electronic components, chemical and food processing equipment, heat treating equipment, nuclear steam generator tubing. -> See our 601 Items <-

 

INCOLOY® alloy 800H/HT (UNS N08810/N08811) Fe base, Ni 32, Cr 21, Mn 1.5, Ti-Al strengthened. 800H/HT is an iron-nickel-chromium alloy having the same basic composition as Alloy 800 but with significantly higher creep rupture strength. Exhibits excellent resistance to carburization, oxidation and nitriding atmospheres. The alloy is dual certified and combines the properties of both forms.

 

HAYNES® alloy 25 (L605) (UNS R30605) Co 50.0, Cr 20.0, W 15.0, Ni 10.0, Fe 3.0 Mn 1.5 Excellent strength for continuos service to 1800°F. Oxidation and carburization resistance to 1900°F. Galling resistant, with resistance to marine environments, acids and body fluids. Non-magnetic, even when severely cold reduced, can reach Rc 50 when cold reduced and aged. Resistant to hydrochloric and nitric acid at certain concentrations and temperatures, and wet chlorine environments at room temperature.
Gas turbine engine components : combustion chambers, and afterburners. Other uses also include :high temperature ball bearing service, springs, and heart valves. -> See our L605 Items <-

 

NITRONIC 60® (Alloy 218) (UNS S21800) Fe 63, Cr 17, Mn 8, Ni 8.5, Si 4, N 0.13 High strength fully Austenitic alloy that resists galling and wear. Significantly lower cost to extend part life and lower maintenance. The yield strength is twice that of 304 and 316 stainless steels, in the annealed condition. Tensile strengths can be produced in excess of 200 ksi. Chloride pitting is superior to that of type 316, and the oxidation resistance is similar to type 321 at elevated temperatures, and excellent cryogenic impact strength.
Valve stems, seats, and trim; fastening systems, screening, pins, bushings, roller bearings, pump shafts and rings. Food handling, medical, automotive, aerospace and nuclear. -> See our NITRONIC 60 Items <-

 

Corrosion Resistant Alloys

 

HASTELLOY® alloy C-276 (UNS N10276) Ni 57.0, Mo 16.0, Cr 15.5, Fe 5.5, W 3.8 Outstanding corrosion resistance in reducing and oxidizing environments. Maintains corrosion resistance in welded condition. Excellent resistance to pitting and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC).
Widely used in severest environments in chemical processing, pollution control, pulp and paper.

 

HASTELLOY® alloy B-2 (UNS N10665) Ni 68, Mo 28, Fe 2, Co 1, Cr 1 Significant resistance to reducing environments. This alloy also provides resistance to pure sulfuric acid and a number of non-oxidizing acids. Industry users like the resistance to a wide range of organic acids and the resistance to chloride-induced SCC.
One of its advantages is the heat affected weld zones have reduced precipitation of carbides and other phases to ensure uniform corrosion resistance. Chemical processing industry involving sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrochloric and acetic acid. Temperature uses vary from ambient to 1500°F depending on the environments.

 

HASTELLOY® alloy C-22® (UNS N06022) Ni 58, Cr 22, Mo 13.0, Fe 3.0, W 3.0 Better corrosion than C-276 in select environments. Resistance to a wide range of organic acids and the resistance to chloride-induced SCC, and other reducing chemicals. Also has resistance to some oxidizing environments.
Recommended for welding filler metal for general corrosion resistance in many applications.

 

INCOLOY 27-7MO (UNS S31277) 6 Moly minimum grade. An advanced 7% molybdenum super-austenitic stainless steel offering corrosion resistance in most environments superior to 6% molybdenum super-austenitic stainless steels. In many environments, alloy 27-7MO offers resistance approaching or exceeding that of much more highly alloyed materials such as INCONEL alloys 625, 22 and C276. Applications for this allow are found in the pollution control, power, marine, chemical processing, pulp and paper, pharmaceutical and oil and gas industries.

 

Nickel 200 / 201 (UNS N02200 / N02201) Ni 99.6 C 0.08 Commercially pure wrought nickel, good mechanical properties, excellent resistance to many corrosives. Nickel 201 has low carbon (0.02% max.) for applications over 600 degrees F (315 degrees C).
Food processing equipment, chemical shipping drums, caustic handling equipment and piping, electronic parts, aerospace and missile components, rocket motor cases, magneto-strictive devices

 

MONEL® alloy 400 (UNS N04400) Ni 66.5 Cu 31.5 High strength, good weldability, excellent corrosion resistance over wide range of temperatures and conditions.
Valves, pumps, shafts, marine fixtures, fasteners, electrical, and electronic components, processing equipment, petroleum refining and production equipment, feed water heaters and other heat exchangers.

MONEL® alloy R-405 (UNS N04405) Ni 66.5 Cu 31.5 S 0.04 (Similar to MONEL alloy 400) Solid solution strengthened alloy with high strength and toughness over a wide range of temperatures. Corrosion resistant and oxidation resistant to 1000°F. Controlled sulfur added for improved machinability over alloy 400.
Water meter parts, screw machine products, fasteners, valve parts.

 

MONEL® alloy K-500 (UNS N05500) Ni 65.5 Cu 29.5 Al 2.7, Ti 0.6 Age-hardenable version of MONEL alloy 400 for increased strength and hardness. Good strength and ductility from -423 to 1200°F. Pump shafts, doctor blades and scrapers, oil-well drill collars and instruments, electronic components, springs, valve trim, fasteners.

 

INCONEL® alloy 600 (UNS N06600) Ni 76.0, Cr 15.5, Fe 8.0 High nickel, high chromium content for resistance to oxidizing and reducing environments; for severely corrosive environments at elevated temperatures. Good oxidation resistance to 2150°F. Good formability.
Furnace muffles, electronic components, chemical and food processing equipment, heat treating equipment, nuclear steam generator tubing.

 

INCONEL® alloy 625 (UNS N06625) Ni 61.0, Cr 21.5 Mo 9.0, Nb+Ta 3.6 High strength and toughness from cryogenic temperatures to 1800 degrees F (980 degrees C), good oxidation resistance, exceptional fatigue strength, and good corrosion resistance.
Chemical and pollution control equipment, ash pit seals, nuclear reactors, marine equipment, ducting, thrust reverser assemblies, fuel nozzles, afterburners, spray bars. -> See our 625 Items <-

 

FERRALIUM® alloy 255 (UNS S32550) Fe 62, Cr 25.5, Ni 5.5, Mo 3.4 Cu 2.0, Mn 1.6, Si 0.7, N 0.2 Duplex alloy with a high strength to weight ratio, with superior abrasion and cavitation resistance. Resistance to chloride SCC, as well as crevice corrosion and pitting. Good ductility with a high fatigue strength in marine applications. Twice the yield strength of Alloy 20, and stronger than Duplex 2205. An excellent 40°C critical pitting temperature (ASTM G48-Method A), twice that of Alloy 2205.
Valves, pumps, shafts, marine environments, Applications in down-hole, waste water, polycarbonate production, and dematerialized water production.

 

NITRONIC 60® (Alloy 218) (UNS S21800) Fe 63, Cr 17, Mn 8, Ni 8.5, Si 4, N 0.13 High strength fully Austenitic alloy that resists galling and wear. Significantly lower cost to extend part life and lower maintenance. The yield strength is twice that of 304 and 316 stainless steels, in the annealed condition. Tensile strengths can be produced in excess of 200 ksi. Chloride pitting is superior to that of type 316, and the oxidation resistance is similar to type 321 at elevated temperatures, and excellent cryogenic impact strength.
Valve stems, seats, and trim; fastening systems, screening, pins, bushings, roller bearings, pump shafts and rings. Food handling, medical, automotive, aerospace and nuclear. -> See our NITRONIC 60 Items <-

 

NITRONIC® 50 (XM-19) (UNS S20910) Fe 57, Cr 22, Ni 13, Mn 5, Mo 2, Si 1 High strength Austenitic with superior corrosion resistance to types 316 and 316L, with approximately twice the yield strength in the annealed condition. Also fully Austenitic, this alloys stays non-magnetic when severely cold reduced. Cryogenic properties are also outstanding as well as elevated temperatures.
Pumps, valves, fittings, fasteners, cables, chains, wire cloth, marine hardware, shafts, and springs.

 

NITRONIC® 30 Low alloy version of NITRONIC 60, primarily used for abrasion resistance only. -> See our NITRONIC 30 Items <-

 

CARPENTER® alloy 20Cb-3® (UNS N08020) Ni 35, Fe 37, Cr 20, Cu 3.5, Mo 2.5 Excellent resistance to chemicals containing chlorides and sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids. Resists pitting, crevice corrosion, SCC, and intergranular attack.
Pickling tanks, gas scrubbers, piping, heat exchangers, pumps, shafts and valves. Synthetic rubber, pharmaceutical production and other process equipment.

 

HASTELLOY,  HAYNES and C-22 are registered trade names of Haynes International, Inc.
MONEL & INCONEL are registered trade names of INCO family of companies.
NITRONIC is a registered trade name of Armco, Inc.
CARPENTER & 20Cb-3 are registered trade names of Carpenter Technology Corporation.
FERRALIUM is a registered trade name of Langley Alloys, LTD.


 

 

Refractory Metals: Nb-Niobium, Mo-Molybdenum, Ta-Tantalum, W-Tungsten, Re-Rhenium

H He
LiBe BCNOFNe
NaMg AlSiPSClAr
KCaSc TiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr
RbSrY ZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXe
CsBaLa*HfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTlPbBiPoAtRn
FrRaAc**RfDbSgBhHsMtDsRgCnUutFlUupLvUusUuo 
 *CePrNdPmSmEuGdTbDyHoErTmYbLu 
 **ThPaUNpPuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNoLr 
  Refractory metals
  Wider definition of refractory metals[1]

Refractory metals are a class of metals that are extraordinarily resistant to heat and wear. The expression is mostly used in the context of materials science, metallurgy and engineering. The definition of which elements belong to this group differs. The most common definition includes five elements: two of the fifth period (niobium and molybdenum) and three of the sixth period (tantalum, tungsten, and rhenium). They all share some properties, including a melting point above 2000 °C and high hardness at room temperature. They are chemically inert and have a relatively high density. Their high melting points make powder metallurgy the method of choice for fabricating components from these metals. Some of their applications include tools to work metals at high temperatures, wire filaments, casting molds, and chemical reaction vessels in corrosive environments. Partly due to the high melting point, refractory metals are stable against creep deformation to very high temperatures.


Properties

Physical

Properties of the refractory metals
NameNiobiumMolybdenumTantalumTungstenRhenium
Melting point °K 2750 2896 3290 3695 3459
Boiling point °K 5017 4912 5731 5828 5869
Melting point °C 2477 2623 3017 3422 3186
Boiling point °C 4744 4639 5458 5555 5596
Density g·cm−3 8.57 10.28 16.69 19.25 21.02
Young's modulus GPa 105 329 186 411 463
Vickers hardness MPa 1320 1530 873 3430 2450

The melting point of the refractory metals are the highest for all elements except carbon, osmium and iridium. This high melting point defines most of their applications. All the metals are body-centered cubic except rhenium which is hexagonal close-packed. Most physical properties of the elements in this group vary significantly because they are members of different groups.[5][6]

Creep resistance is a key property of the refractory metals. In metals, the starting of creep correlates with the melting point of the material; the creep in aluminium alloys starts at 200°C, while for refractory metals temperatures above 1500°C are necessary. This resistance against deformation at high temperatures makes the refractory metals suitable against strong forces at high temperature, for example in jet engines, or tools used during forging.[7][8]

Chemical

The refractory metals show a wide variety of chemical properties because they are members of three distinct groups in the periodic table. They are easily oxidized, but this reaction is slowed down in the bulk metal by the formation of stable oxide layers on the surface. Especially the oxide of rhenium is more volatile than the metal, and therefore at high temperature the stabilization against the attack of oxygen is lost, because the oxide layer evaporates. They all are relatively stable against acids.[5]

Applications

Refractory metals are used in lighting, tools, lubricants, nuclear reaction control rods, as catalysts, and for their chemical or electrical properties. Because of their high melting point, refractory metal components are never fabricated by casting. The process of powder metallurgy is used. Powders of the pure metal are compacted, heated using electric current, and further fabricated by cold working with annealing steps. Refractory metals can be worked into wire, ingots, rebars, sheets or foil.

Molybdenum alloys

Molybdenum and Molybdenum Applications

Molybdenum based alloys are widely used, because they are cheaper than superior tungsten alloys. The most widely used alloy of molybdenum is the Titanium-Zirconium-Molybdenum alloy TZM, composed of 0.5% titanium and 0.08% of zirconium (with molybdenum being the rest). The alloy exhibits a higher creep resistance and strength at high temperatures, making service temperatures of above 1060°C possible for the material. The high resistivity of Mo-30W an alloy of 70% molybdenum and 30 tungsten against the attack of molten zinc makes it the ideal material for casting zinc. It is also used to construct valves for molten zinc.[9]

Molybdenum is used in mercury wetted reed relays, because molybdenum does not form amalgams and is therefore resistant to corrosion by liquid mercury.[10][11]

Molybdenum is the most commonly used of the refractory metals. Its most important use is as a strengthening alloy of steel. Structural tubing and piping often contains molybdenum, as do many stainless steels. Its strength at high temperatures, resistance to wear and low coefficient of friction are all properties which make it invaluable as an alloying compound. Its excellent anti-friction properties lead to its incorporation in greases and oils where reliability and performance are critical. Automotive constant-velocity joints use grease containing molybdenum. The compound sticks readily to metal and forms a very hard, friction resistant coating. Most of the world's molybdenum ore can be found in China, the USA, Chile and Canada.

Tungsten and its alloys

Tungsten and Tungsten § Applications

Tungsten was discovered in 1781 by the Swedish chemist, Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Tungsten has the highest melting point of all metals, at 3,410 °C (6,170 °F).

 
Filament of a 200 watt incandescent lightbulb highly magnified

Up to 22% rhenium is alloyed with tungsten to improve its high temperature strength and corrosion resistance. Thorium as an alloying compound is used when electric arcs have to be established. The ignition is easier and the arc burns more stable than without the addition of thorium. For powder metallurgy applications, binders have to be used for the sintering process. For the production of the tungsten heavy alloy, binder mixtures of nickel and iron or nickel and copper are widely used. The tungsten content of the alloy is normally above 90%. The diffusion of the binder elements into the tungsten grains is low even at the sintering temperatures and therefore the interior of the grains is pure tungsten.

Tungsten and its alloys are often used in applications where high temperatures are present but still a high strength is necessary and the high density is not troublesome. Tungsten wire filaments provide the vast majority of household incandescent lighting, but are also common in industrial lighting as electrodes in arc lamps. Lamps get more efficient in the conversion of electric energy to light with higher temperatures and therefore a high melting point is essential for the application as filament in incandescent light.[18] In the Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW, also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding) equipment uses a permanent, non-melting electrode. The high melting point and the wear resistance against the electric arc makes tungsten a suitable material for the electrode.

Tungsten's high density and strength is also a key property for its use in weapon projectiles, for example as an alternative to depleted Uranium for tank guns. Its high melting point makes tungsten a good material for applications like rocket nozzles, for example in the UGM-27 Polaris. Some of the applications of tungsten are not related to its refractory properties but simply to its density. For example, it is used in balance weights for planes and helicopters or for heads of golf clubs. In this applications similar dense materials like the more expensive osmium can also be used.

Niobium alloys

Image of the Apollo Service Module with the moon in the background
 
Apollo CSM with the dark rocket nozzle made from niobium-titanium alloy

Niobium is nearly always found together with tantalum, and was named after Niobe, the daughter of the mythical Greek king Tantalus for whom tantalum was named. Niobium has many uses, some of which it shares with other refractory metals. It is unique in that it can be worked through annealing to achieve a wide range of strength and elasticity, and is the least dense of the refractory metals. It can also be found in electrolytic capacitors and in the most practical superconducting alloys. Niobium can be found in aircraft gas turbines, vacuum tubes and nuclear reactors.

An alloy used for liquid rocket thruster nozzles, such as in the main engine of the Apollo Lunar Modules, is C103, which consists of 89% niobium, 10% hafnium and 1% titanium. Another niobium alloy was used for the nozzle of the Apollo Service Module. As niobium is oxidized at temperatures above 400 °C, a protective coating is necessary for these applications to prevent the alloy from becoming brittle.


Tantalum and its alloys 

Tantalum and Tantalum Applications

Tantalum is one of the most corrosion resistant substances available.

Many important uses have been found for tantalum owing to this property, particularly in the medical and surgical fields, and also in harsh acidic environments. It is also used to make superior electrolytic capacitors. Tantalum films provide the second most capacitance per volume of any substance after Aerogel, and allow miniaturization of electronic components and circuitry. Many cellular phones and computers contain tantalum capacitors.

Rhenium alloys

Rhenium

Rhenium is the most recently discovered refractory metal. It is found in low concentrations with many other metals, in the ores of other refractory metals, platinum or copper ores. It is useful as an alloy to other refractory metals, where it adds ductility and tensile strength. Rhenium alloys are being used in electronic components, gyroscopes and nuclear reactors. Rhenium finds its most important use as a catalyst. It is used as a catalyst in reactions such as alkylation, dealkylation, hydrogenation and oxidation. However its rarity makes it the most expensive of the refractory metals.

Advantages and shortfalls

Refractory metals and alloys attract the attention of investigators because of their remarkable properties and promising practical usefulness.

Physical properties of refractory metals, such as molybdenum, tantalum and tungsten, their strength, and high-temperature stability make them suitable material for hot metalworking applications and for vacuum furnace technology. Many special applications exploit these properties: for example, tungsten lamp filaments operate at temperatures up to 3073 K, and molybdenum furnace windings withstand to 2273 K.

However, poor low-temperature fabricability and extreme oxidability at high temperatures are shortcomings of most refractory metals. Interactions with the environment can significantly influence their high-temperature creep strength. Application of these metals requires a protective atmosphere or coating.

The refractory metal alloys of molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, and tungsten have been applied to space nuclear power systems. These systems were designed to operate at temperatures from 1350 K to approximately 1900 K. An environment must not interact with the material in question. Liquid alkali metals as the heat transfer fluids are used as well as the ultra-high vacuum.

The high-temperature creep strain of alloys must be limited for them to be used. The creep strain should not exceed 1–2%. An additional complication in studying creep behavior of the refractory metals is interactions with environment, which can significantly influence the creep behavior.

american-flag-on-pole.jpg                  aircraft-planes_widewallpaper_sr-71-blackbird_84960.jpg